Muhammad Ifham Hanif1,   Taufik Ridwan Hadi Kusuma2, Saiful Hidayat2, Naufal Aminur Rahman2


  1. Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Padjadjaran, Bandung
  2. Fakultas Kedokteran, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta




Introduction: As the WHO has declared that Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global emergency, clinical predictors of severity must be identified to optimize the treatment. Hypertension is the most prevalent comorbidity. It has been commonly reported that it increases the mortality rate, although some research has shown conflicting results. This study aims to measure some literature on the correlation between hypertension and mortality rate in COVID-19.

Methods: This study is a meta-analysis. The research was conducted using secondary data by searching and selecting clinical studies. The article searching was through a systematic and comprehensive database from PubMed, ScienceDirect, Google Scholar, ProQuest, and Springer Link. Articles were collected using the PRISMA diagram, critically appraised using the PRISMA checklist and PICO analysis, then the data were analyzed using Review Manager 5.4.1 application with Random Effect Model (REM). The analysis results are the effect size, heterogeneity, and the study model.

Results: Based on the meta-analysis from the five included studies, the hypertension group had a 2.76-fold higher risk of mortality (RR 2.76, 95% CI 2.58-2.96) caused by COVID-19 compared to the group without hypertension. I2 statistics showed heterogeneities among the included studies, and hence the random effect model is used. Funnel plots were plotted for the included studies in the meta-analysis, which suggested a publication bias in the studies of our meta-analysis.

Conclusion: COVID-19 patients with hypertension are associated with a higher risk of COVID-19 mortality rate.

Keywords: Hypertension, COVID-19, Mortality rate.

Published: 2022-04-01