Davin Takaryanto,1,2, Ade Erna1,2, Hendarsyah Suryadinata1,3
1 Faculty of Medicine, UniversitasPadjadjaran, Bandung, Indonesia
2Department of Internal Medicine, Sumedang Regional Public Hospital, Sumedang, Indonesia
3 Respiratory Critical Disease Division, Department of Internal Medicine, HasanSadikin General Hospital, Bandung, Indonesia
Introduction:The prevalence of obesity continues to increase every year across the world. Obesity has been a risk factor for developing some chronic and non-communicable diseases. Obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS) is one of non-communicable disease that emerges with obesity as its primary risk factor. We presented a case with severe obesity, chronic hypoventilation and multiorgan impairmentscaused by OHS, a disease that is often misdiagnosed and mistreated hence leads to higher mortality rate.
Case Report: A woman, 54 years old, was brought to hospital emergency ward with decrease of consciousness (hypersomnolent) and breathlessness. The patient had an excessive sleeping amount of time with morning or nocturnal headache, snoring, and sleeping apnea. She had been diagnosed as asthma and pulmonary hypertension and had been given therapy. She was severely obese with BMI of 44.07 kg/m2. The patient suffered multiorgan failures of respiratory failure, hepatic impairment, cardiac failure, and renal disease. She underwent positive pressure ventilatory assistance after being delayed until after fourth day of hospitalization. She suffered from cardiac arrest due to septic shock and respiratory failure. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was carried out, but eventually the patient died.
Discussions:OHS is an alveolar hypoventilation or hypercapnia that occurs daily in obese patient without underlying disease that could lead to hypo ventilatory state. Majority of patients with OHS also experience obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Patients who complain respiratory problems are often misdiagnosed as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease even though theyshowsome obvious OHS clinical features. Chronic hypercapnia could lead to dyspnea worsened by physical activity, sleep problem, excessive daily sleeping time, delirium, myoclonus, and seizures. Along with clinical findings, further confirmatory examinations are needed to support OHS diagnosis. OHS could lead to some complications such as pulmonary hypertension and right heart failure (corpulmonale). Bariatric surgery and positive pressure ventilation with mechanical ventilator are primary therapies for OHS.
Conclusions: Diagnosis of OHS should be considered when finding obese patients who complain respiratory problems. Missed diagnosis and inadequate therapy in OHS patients could lead to high morbidity and mortality rate. Advance diagnostic tools are needed to accurately diagnose, follow up and treat OHS patients intensively.
Keywords: hypoventilation, hypercapnia, obesity, Pickwickian syndrome